1. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be: a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria 2. The

1. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be: a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria 2. The philosophy that emphasizes “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” is known as: a. Hedonism. b. The principle of utility. c. The cartographic approach. d. The contrast effect. 3. The doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life is known as: a. Hedonism. b. The principle of utility. c. The cartographic approach. d. The contrast effect. 4. The philosopher the most closely associated with the principle of utility was: a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria 5. _____ specifically refers to the weighing of anticipated benefits of a given course of action against its possible costs. a. Human agency b. Hedonistic calculus c. Rationality d. Positivism 6. _____ are known for the emphasis that they place on the scientific method. a. Classicalists b. Hedonists c. Structuralists d. Positivists 7. Prior to the eighteenth century, explanations of crime and other human behavior tended to center on: a. Human rationality. b. Inborn traits. c. Social influences. d. Religiosity or spiritualism. 8. Which of the following theoretical perspectives is based on the premise that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature? a. Classicalism b. Ecological Determinism c. Positivism d. The Italian School 9. The 8th Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment; this is most closely aligned with the ideas of which of the following? a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria 10. _____ was the term used by Lombroso to refer to those whom he considered to be evolutionary throwbacks, biological inferior beings who resembled ancestral prehuman forms of life. a. Atavism b. Criminaloid c. Habitual Criminal d. Hedonist 11. Rather than exploring why individuals commit crime, _____ criminologists are interested in where and when criminal behavior is most prevalent. a. Cartographic b. Classical c. Hedonistic d. Neoclassical 12. According to Raffael Garofalo, societies can only be protected from _____ criminals by swiftly executing them, regardless of the crime for which they were being punished. a. Endemic b. Extreme c. Impulsive d. Professional 13. Criminologist Raffael Garofalo categorized alcoholics and the insane as _____ criminals. a. Endemic b. Extreme c. Impulsive d. Professional 14. Cesare Lombroso, Raffael Garofalo, and Enrico Ferri founded what became known as the _____ school of criminology. a. American b. French c. German d. Italian 15. The idea that the punishment should be tailored to the risk level of the individual, not the crime, is most representative of the _____ school of criminology. a. Classical b. German c. Italian d. Russian 16. Engaging in a debate about the death penalty, one person makes the argument that while the penalty may not deter offenders, it is still a valuable punishment in the name of social defense. This is most clearly representative of the _____ school of criminology. a. Classical b. German c. Italian d. Russian 17. _____ is a concept in rational choice theory referring to how people decide to offend. a. Choice structuring b. Choice offending c. Rational structuring d. Rational offending 18. _____ specifically refers to the concept that people have the capacity to make choices, and the moral responsibility to make moral choices regardless of any constraints that might exist. a. Human agency b. Hedonistic calculus c. Rationality d. Positivism 19. Rational choice theory is most closely linked to the _____ school. a. Classical b. German c. Italian d. Positivist 20. Modern criminology is the product of which two main schools of thought? a. Rational choice and neoclassical b. Classical and neoclassical c. Social defense and rational choice d. Classical and positivist 21. _____ is the prevention of criminal acts by the use or threat of punishment. a. Deterrence b. Recidivism c. Rehabilitation d. Retribution 22. _____ deterrence refers to the effect of punishment of the future behavior of the person who experiences the punishment. a. General b. Specific c. Primary d. Secondary 23. Committing another crime after previously being punished for one is called: a. Rehabilitation b. Retribution c. Recidivism d. Deterrence 24. _____ deterrence refers to the preventive effect of the threat of punishment on the population; it is aimed at potential offenders. a. General b. Specific c. Primary d. Secondary 25. The argument that crime can be reduced by increasing individuals sense of ownership and generating a sense of belonging in an area through its physical design is central to the idea of _____. a. Atavism b. Defensible Space c. General Deterrence d. Hedonism 26. Jeremy Bentham maintained that estimations of the values of pleasures and pains were to be considered with reference to which of the following circumstances? a. Intensity b. Duration c. Certainty d. All of the above 27. Determinism: a. Means that all events have causes that preceded them. b. Has all but disappeared in science c. Is a philosophy aligned with the classical school of criminology d. All of the above 28. Scholars who employ maps and other geographic information in their research are known as: a. Classical criminologists b. Positivists c. Cartographers d. Atavists 29. Juridical criminals: a. Become criminals via contact with other criminals. b. Fall afoul of the law by accident. c. Are hot-headed and impulsive persons who commit violent acts when provoked. d. Bore some stigma but were not born criminals. 30. Which of the following is the distinction between the circumstances of punishment and the usual life experience of the person being punished? a. Determinism b. Contrast effect c. Atavism d. Human agency 31. Which of the following is one of the circumstances to be considered in measuring a pleasure or pain by itself? a. Fecundity b. Intensity c. Purity d. Extent 32. Crime rates in Great Britain _______when the levels of punishment decreased? a. Decreased b. Increased c. Stayed the same d. Varied 33. Which of the following is one of the policy recommendations presented by Becker? a. Increased punishments for using guns in crimes b. Spending less money on incarceration c. Reducing police officer’s ability to frisk based on reasonable suspicion d. Three-strikes-and-you’re-out for lower level offenses 34. When the value of any pleasure or pain is considered for the purpose of estimating the tendency of any act by which it is produced, there are two circumstances that must be taken into account. These include: a. Fecundity and purity b. Intensity and duration c. Certainty and propinquity d. Extent and remoteness 35. True or False? Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham are associated with the classical school of criminology. a. True b. False 36. True or False? Adolphe Quetelet is known for his work in the area of cartographic criminology. a. True b. False 37. True or False? Routine activities theory can be critiqued for focusing too heavily on individual differences in the propensity to commit crime, to the oversight of important details regarding the criminal event. a. True b. False 38. True or False? The positivist school of criminology is primarily interested in making punishment more just and humane. a. True b. False 39. True or False? Cartographic criminology is primarily interested in where and when criminal behavior is most prevalent. a. True b. False 40. True or False? Specific deterrence refers to the preventive effect of the threat of punishment on the general population. a. True b. False 41. True or False? There is little evidence that increasing the severity of the sanction (in the form of sentence length) has any deterrent effect. a. True b. False 42. True or False? Legal sanctions have a greater deterrent effect on instrumental crimes than on expressive crimes. a. True b. False 43. True or False? Cesare Lombroso was well-known for his contributions to biological positivism. a. True b. False 44. True or False? Social defense theorists view crime in terms of Bentham’s principle of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain. a. True b. False 45. True or False? Jeremy Bentham coined the term “criminaloid” to refer to born criminals. a. True b. False 46. True or False? Hedonism is a doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life. a. True b. False 47. True or False? Beccaria believed that equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally according to relevant differences. a. True b. False 48. True or False? Beccaria believed that capital punishment could not be an effective deterrent and that life imprisonment would be more effective. a. True b. False 49. True or False? Classical criminologists were more concerned with discovering biological, psychological, or social determinants of criminal behavior than with the positivist concerns of legal and penal reforms. a. True b. False 50. True or False? Garofalo was interested in developing a “classical” definition of crime. a. True b. False 51. True or False? The United States has an incarceration rate five times greater than England and Wales. a. True b. False 52. True or false? Balance, if on the side of pleasure, will give the general evil tendency of the act. a. True b. False 53. True or False? For a risk taker engaged in crime, magnitude of punishment is more important than certainty of punishment. a. True b. False 54. True or False? General deterrence theory is concerned with how individuals respond to the perceived as opposed to objective cost properties of their criminal decisions. a. True b. False 55. Which two theorists are most often associated with the classical school? Ans: Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. 56. Define “hedonism”. 57. What is the “contrast effect”? 58. Explain the difference between specific and general deterrence. 59. Briefly describe cartographic criminology. 60. What is recidivism? 61. What three important observations did Beccaria make in regards to the application of punishment? 62. Define free will. 63. Identify the three types of criminaloids. Ans: Habitual criminals, juridical criminals, and criminals by passion 64. Define professional criminals. 65. Define human agency. 66. Compare and contrast the classical and positivist schools of criminology. How are these explanations of crime similar? How are they different? 67. While walking to her car in a mall parking lot, a woman is approached by a man who displays a handgun and demands her purse. She gives him her purse, and he runs away with it. How would each of the following theoretical perspectives explain this crime? A) Classicalism B) Biological Positivism 68. Describe the contributions of Andre M. Guerry and Adolphe Quetelet to the field of criminology, and explain their significance. 69. Based on what you have learned in this class, is the U.S. soft or hard on crime? Support your argument. Ans: 70. Explain the contributions of Cesare Beccaria to the field of criminology. How did he feel about capital punishment? List some of his ideas that are still prominent today. Ans: 71. Discuss the classical explanation of human behavior in regards to hedonism, rationality, and free will. Ans: 72. Describe Cesare Lombroso’s theory of atavism. What are insane criminals? What are criminaloids? Ans: 73. Discuss Raffael Garofalo’s definition of natural crime. What are the four characteristics that place offenders at risk for further criminal behavior? What punishment was associated with each peculiarity? Ans: 74. What is meant by utility? Ans: 75. Identify the four circumstances to be considered in estimating a pleasure or pain considered by itself. Ans: 76. Discuss the “two sovereign masters” according to Bentham. How should they be measured? Ans: 77. Bentham is considered a bridge between what two schools? Ans 78. Explain CompStat. Ans:

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