2 of 10317 pquarshie26 Monday, May 21, 2018 6:24 PM ———- Forwarded message ——— From: N DOE SHOW Date: Mon, May 21,

2 of 10317 pquarshie26 Monday, May 21, 2018 6:24 PM ———- Forwarded message ——— From: N DOE SHOW Date: Mon, May 21, 2018 at 3:07 PM Subject: Re: UNESCO1.docx To: Philomena Quarshie DIRECTIONS Write 6 to 7 page paper on “complexities in couples financial information” MY TOPIC IS Complexities in Couples’ Financial Information use notes below to write paper plus two more additional sources. I have already cited them. Use citations in notes to added to “reference page” Intro- 3 sections- conclusion. -findings and theory -quotes This paper gives you the opportunity to examine an area of our everyday communication in a more in-depth manner by finding, reading, and analyzing original, scholarly sources on a topic of interest to you.  My hope is also that you learn how to write a good literature review that will you in your future writing assignments. What is a literature review?  A literature review is an examination of the published work by researchers and scholars on a given topic.  A literature review should synthesize the information from the existing literature and organize it in a meaningful way.  It is not a separate summary of each source or article.  Additionally, a literature review should offer a critique of the existing literature, such as by discussing the strengths and weaknesses as well as areas that are in need of further investigation. Description:  This assignment lets you examine an area that we have read about and/or talked about in class (or will cover in the future) in more detail.  You will find and read at least three original, scholarly research articles.  By scholarly, I mean that the articles should come from published peer-reviewed journals, NOT magazines, newspapers, conference papers, dissertations/theses, or books.  Some good journals to look at are Communication Monographs, Journal of Communication, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, and Personal Relationships, to name a few. Your last two sources may be from non journal sources.In total yor paper should have at least 5 sources.  If you have any questions about whether your sources are appropriate, ask me. In your paper, you should synthesize the studies and articles that you have examined, focusing on the major findings.  You must carefully read the entirety of each article, but you should focus especially on the Discussion section.   note my use of the word synthesize.  I do not want a separate summary of each article; rather, I want you to present an overall picture of what you have learned from studying a small body of literature on this particular aspect of our everyday communication.  Your paper should be organized into three thematic subsections, each with a clear and separate heading.  Some questions that may be useful to think about are:  What questions is the research trying to answer?  What connections or similarities do you see between these studies?  What contexts were examined?  Are the findings consistent with each other?  How are the studies different? An important part of every literature review is a critique of the literature.  You should consider what the studies that you reviewed did well and what was limiting about the studies you reviewed. It is often ful to carefully review the Method section when critiquing the literature.  You can also think about gaps in the research overall when constructing your critique.  Your critique of the literature will be a separate, labeled section and will lead up to at least one Research Question or Hypothesis.  In other words, you should end with a question or educated guess about your topic that was not answered in the literature you reviewed, but that you think Journal Article Notes  – #1 Topic : Complexities in Couples’ Financial Information 1. APA citation Fowler , C., Gasiorek, J. & Afifi, W. (2016). Complex Considerations in Couples’ Financial Information Management: Extending the Theory of Motivated Information Management. Communication Research 2018, Vol. 45(3) 365–393 The Author(s) 2016 2.  This study is concerned with complexities in couples’ financial Information. Many publications have shown that money  related issues can be a huge strain on relationships whether it is couples, marriage, or fiance. Couples must deal with the fact that markets may rise or fall and some promising futures could get compromised. Specifically test using the TMIM theory in three ways: (a) examining the joint operation of positive and negative emotions on information management, (b) testing multiple types of outcome expectancies (OEs), and (c) testing the model’s prediction of multiple information management strategies (i.e., direct information seeking, indirect information seeking, avoidance, and cognitive reappraisal). Next  we move into Financial Uncertainty and Information Management in Couples. Evertsson and Nyman (2014) found that even persons who managed their money independently considered implications of their partner’s resources for their own monetary choices and situation, and were open with their partners about their financial circumstances. It was stated that increased economic interdependence brings greater potential for financial uncertainty. “Speaking about money in marriage is the last taboo. Couples would prefer to talk about sex or infidelities rather than how they handle family finances or how much money they earn” (p. 1). Individuals may also be paralyzed by “emotional inertia” deriving from a “fear or sense of intimidation when faced with financial products and decision making” (Wood, Downer, Lees, & Toberman, 2012, p. 4). They may also be concerned that by initiating conversations about money, they risk being seen as “nagging” their partner. The TMIM posits that individuals proceed through a series of considerations, which the theory organizes into three phases, before arriving at a particular information management decision. In the interpretation phase, researchers operating within a TMIM framework adopt the position that, through a fairly complex process, uncertainty discrepancy indirectly influences information management decisions and behaviors. TMIM studies have found uncertainty discrepancy to be very much associated with anxiety (e.g., W. A. Afifi, Dillow, & Morse, 2004; Rauscher & Hesse, 2014). Uncertainty discrepancy will be associated with both anxiety and optimism. Step 3. The Focus (Main points) of the article -Anxiety is inversely associated with knowledge and relationship OEs, whereas optimism will be positively associated with knowledge and relationships outcome expectancies. – Knowledge and relationship outcome expectancies will each be positively associated with efficacy assessments. Anxiety will be negatively associated with efficacy, whereas optimism will be positively associated with efficacy. 4. – Key words and definitions 5. The author conducted this study to know more about how couples feel when it comes to money. These feelings determine what the effects of their relationship and longevity of it. 6. A substantial number ( = 79; 20%) had been in a relationship and cohabited for at least 2 years, while small proportions were engaged and cohabiting ( = 28; 7%), or in a civil union ( = 2; 1%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ). Al  participants reported that their finances were interwoven with those of their partner, but about half ( = 183; 47%) maintained both separate and joint financial accounts. Most respondents were Pākehā (New Zealand European; = 326; 84%) and approximately half (48%) had a bachelor’s degree or higher level qualification. 7.  Anxiety was also a positive and direct predictor of indirect information seeking. However, the overall indirect effect of anxiety on indirect information seeking was non-significant. Optimism did not predict indirect information seeking either directly or via the mediated paths. Interestingly, both anxiety and optimism had a direct positive effect on information avoidance. However, neither anxiety nor optimism had a significant indirect effect on information avoidance. 8.  I will use this information for when I get into a serious committed relationship one day. This article gave me a different viewpoint about couples and how they handle their finances. I learned that anxiety and uncertainty of finances has an effect of couples’ happiness as well. Journal Article Notes  – #2 Topic : Complexities in Couples’ Financial Information 1. APA citation – Romo, L. K., & Abetz, J. S. (2016). Money as Relational Struggle: Communicatively Negotiating Cultural Discourses in Romantic Relationships. , (1), 94-110. doi:10.1080/10510974.2015.1121158 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Relational Dialectics Theory – posits that throughout relationships, people are constantly drawing on and invoking systems of meaning, or discourses,1 to make sense of their values, feelings, and decisions (Baxter, 2011). 8. Quotes : Journal Article Notes  – #3 Rick, S. I., Small, D. A., & Finkel, E. J. (2011). Fatal (Fiscal) Attraction: Spendthrifts and    Tightwads in Marriage. , (2), 228-237. doi:10.1509/jmkr.48.2.228 2.) Despite this complementary attraction, tightwad–spendthrift differences within a marriage predict conflict over finances, which in turn predicts diminished marital well-being. These relationships persist when controlling for important financial outcomes (household-level savings and credit card debt). These findings underscore the importance of studying the relationships among money, consumption, and happiness at an interpersonal level. Social psychologists have frequently found that people tend to select spouses with similar demographic characteristics, attitudes, values, and even names (Jones et al. 2004). These findings suggest that people with similar spending tendencies will be attracted to one another. Rather, an important moderator could be whether people dislike a trait in themselves. People are powerfully motivated to avoid becoming their undesired self (Ogilvie 1987), and marrying someone who shares a disliked trait might be perceived as a step in that direction. This proposed moderation suggests that people who are unhappy with their typical spending behavior should be attracted to people who have dissimilar spending tendencies. This reasoning is important because recent behavioral decision research has suggested that many people are unhappy with their typical spending behavior. This work suggests that, because opportunity costs are difficult to assess (e.g., Frederick et al. 2009; Jones et al. 1998), people rely on negative emotion—specifically, the “pain of paying”—as a proxy for opportunity costs when making spending decisions (Knutson et al. 2007; Prelec and Loewenstein 1998). However, because pain is only a crude proxy for opportunity costs, some people chronically spend more or less than they would have had they relied on consideration of opportunity costs to deter their spending (Rick, Cryder, and Loewenstein 2008). 3. 4. spousal decision making personal finance consumer behavior interpersonal relationships marriage 5. 6. 7. 8. What is Complexities in Couples’ Financial Information ? (a) examining the joint operation of positive and negative emotions on information management (b) testing multiple types of outcome expectancies

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